Lü Zhi, whose other given name was Exu, was a well-known stateswoman in Chinese history. In 202 B.C., Liu Bang proclaimed himself emperor of the Hang Dynasty and set up Lü Zhi as empress. Lü Zhi helped Liu Bang kill Han Xin, Peng Yue and other princes who were not Liu’s descendants, so as to destroy the splitting powers and consolidate the unification of the country. After Liu Bang died, Emperor Hui succeeded to the throne. Empress Lü was honored with the title of Empress Dowager. Emperor Hui was kind and weak in character. The state power was in fact controlled by the empress dowager. After Emperor Hui died, Liu Gong succeeded to the throne, becoming Emperor Shao, but the empress dowager presided in court and called her own orders “imperial edicts.” Liu Gong made complaints against Lü.  Lü was angry and killed him. Then she set up King Changshan Liu Yi as emperor. Lü controlled the state power for sixteen years. She carried out the policy of “attaching importance to agriculture while holding business in check, recovering the state economy by recuperating and multiplying the population”. She often played political trickery and was fierce and cruel in means, which was condemned by historians.